Although the legal profession has known for years that many of its students and practitioners are languishing, far too little has been done to address it. Recent studies show we can no longer continue to ignore the problems. In 2016, the American Bar Association (ABA) Commission on Lawyer Assistance Programs and Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation published their study of nearly 13,000 currently-practicing lawyers [the “Study”]. It found that between 21 and 36 percent qualify as problem drinkers, and that approximately 28 percent, 19 percent, and 23 percent are struggling with some level of depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. The parade of difficulties also includes suicide, social alienation, work addiction, sleep deprivation, job dissatisfaction, a “diversity crisis,” complaints of work-life conflict, incivility, a narrowing of values so that profit predominates, and negative public perception. Notably, the Study found that younger lawyers in the first ten years of practice and those working in private firms experience the highest rates of problem drinking and depression. The budding impairment of many of the future generation of lawyers should be alarming to everyone. Too many face less productive, less satisfying, and more troubled career paths.

Additionally, 15 law schools and over 3,300 law students participated in the Survey of Law Student Well-Being, the results of which were released in 2016. It found that 17 percent experienced some level of depression, 14 percent experienced severe anxiety, 23 percent had mild or moderate anxiety, and six percent reported serious suicidal thoughts in the past year. As to alcohol use, 43 percent reported binge drinking at least once in the prior two weeks and nearly one-quarter (22 percent) reported binge-drinking two or more times during that period. One-quarter fell into the category of being at risk for alcoholism for which further screening was recommended.

The results from both surveys signal an elevated risk in the legal community for mental health and substance use disorders tightly intertwined with an alcohol-based social culture. The analysis of the problem cannot end there, however. The studies reflect that the majority of lawyers and law students do not have a mental health or substance use disorder. But that does not mean that they’re thriving. Many lawyers experience a “profound ambivalence” about their work,1 and different sectors of the profession vary in their levels of satisfaction and well-being.

Given this data, lawyer well-being issues can no longer be ignored. Acting for the benefit of lawyers who are functioning below their ability and for those suffering due to substance use and mental health disorders, the National Task Force on Lawyer Well-Being urges our profession’s leaders to act.



We offer three reasons to take action: organizational effectiveness, ethical integrity, and humanitarian concerns.

First, lawyer well-being contributes to organizational success—in law firms, corporations, and government entities. If cognitive functioning is impaired as explained above, legal professionals will be unable to do their best work. For law firms and corporations, lawyer health is an important form of human capital that can provide a competitive advantage.

For example, job satisfaction predicts retention and performance. Gallup Corporation has done years of research showing that worker well-being in the form of engagement is linked to a host of organizational success factors, including lower turnover, high client satisfaction, and higher productivity and profitability. The Gallup research also shows that few organizations fully benefit from their human capital because most employees (68 percent) are not engaged. Reducing turnover is especially important for law firms, where turnover rates can be high. For example, a 2016 survey by Law360 found that over 40 percent of lawyers reported that they were likely or very likely to leave their current law firms in the next year. This high turnover rate for law firms is expensive—with estimated costs for larger firms of $25 million every year. In short, enhancing lawyer health and well-being is good business and makes sound financial sense.

Second, lawyer well-being influences ethics and professionalism. Rule 1.1 of the ABA’s Model Rules of Professional Conduct requires lawyers to “provide competent representation.” Rule 1.3 requires diligence in client representation, and Rules 4.1 through 4.4 regulate working with people other than clients. Minimum competence is critical to protecting clients and allows lawyers to avoid discipline. But it will not enable them to live up to the aspirational goal articulated in the Preamble to the ABA’s Model Rules of Professional Conduct, which calls lawyers to “strive to attain the highest level of skill, to improve the law and the legal profession and to exemplify the legal profession’s ideals of public service.”

Troubled lawyers can struggle with even minimum competence. At least one author suggests that 40 to 70 percent of disciplinary proceedings and malpractice claims against lawyers involve substance use or depression, and often both. This can be explained, in part, by declining mental capacity due to these conditions. For example, major depression is associated with impaired executive functioning, including diminished memory, attention, and problem-solving. Well-functioning executive capacities are needed to make good decisions and evaluate risks, plan for the future, prioritize and sequence actions, and cope with new situations. Further, some types of cognitive impairment persist in up to 60 percent of individuals with depression even after mood symptoms have diminished, making prevention strategies essential. For alcohol abuse, the majority of abusers (up to 80 percent) experience mild to severe cognitive impairment. Deficits are particularly severe in executive functions, especially in problem-solving, abstraction, planning, organizing, and working memory—core features of competent lawyering.

Third, from a humanitarian perspective, promoting well-being is the right thing to do. Untreated mental health and substance use disorders ruin lives and careers. They affect too many of our colleagues. Though our profession prioritizes individualism and self-sufficiency, we all contribute to, and are affected by, the collective legal culture. Whether that culture is toxic or sustaining is up to us. Our interdependence creates a joint responsibility for solutions.


We define lawyer well-being as a continuous process whereby lawyers seek to thrive in each of the following areas: emotional health, occupational pursuits, creative or intellectual endeavors, sense of spirituality or greater purpose in life, physical health, and social connections with others. Lawyer well-being is part of a lawyer’s ethical duty of competence. It includes lawyers’ ability to make healthy, positive work/life choices to assure not only a quality of life within their families and communities, but also to help them make responsible decisions for their clients. It includes maintaining their own long term well-being. This definition highlights that complete health is not defined solely by the absence of illness; it includes a positive state of wellness.

To arrive at this definition, the Task Force consulted other prominent well-being definitions and social science research, which emphasize that well-being is not limited to: (1) an absence of illness, (2) feeling happy all the time, or (3) intra-individual processes—context matters. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) defines “health” as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” It defines “mental health” as “a state of well-being in which every individual realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community.”

Social science research also emphasizes that “well-being” is not defined solely by an absence of dysfunction; but nor is it limited to feeling “happy” or filled with positive emotions. The concept of well-being in social science research is multi-dimensional and includes, for example, engagement in interesting activities, having close relationships and a sense of belonging, developing confidence through mastery, achieving goals that matter to us, meaning and purpose, a sense of autonomy and control, self-acceptance, and personal growth. This multi-dimensional approach underscores that a positive state of well-being is not synonymous with feeling happy or experiencing positive emotions. It is much broader.

Another common theme in social science research is that well-being is not just an intra-personal process: context powerfully influences it. Consistent with this view, a study of world-wide survey data found that five factors constitute the key elements of well-being: career, social relationships, community, health, and finances.

The Task Force chose the term “well-being” based on the view that the terms “health” or “wellness” connote only physical health or the absence of illness. Our definition of “lawyer well-being” embraces the multi-dimensional concept of mental health and the importance of context to complete health.



The benefits of increased lawyer well-being are compelling and the cost of lawyer impairment are too great to ignore. There has never been a better or more important time for all sectors of the profession to get serious about the substance use and mental health of ourselves and those around us. The publication of this report, in and of itself, serves the vital role of bringing conversations about these conditions out in the open. In the following pages, we present recommendations for many stakeholders in the legal profession including the judiciary, regulators, legal employers, law schools, bar associations, lawyers’ professional liability carriers, and lawyer assistance programs. The recommendations revolve around five core steps intended to build a more sustainable culture:

  1. Identifying stakeholders and the role that each of us can play in reducing the level of toxicity in our profession.
  2. Ending the stigma surrounding help-seeking behaviors. This report contains numerous recommendations to combat the stigma that seeking help will lead to negative professional consequences.
  3. Emphasizing that well-being is an indispensable part of a lawyer’s duty of competence. Among the report’s recommendations are steps stakeholders can take to highlight the tie-in between competence and well-being. These include giving this connection formal recognition through modifying the Rules of Professional Conduct or their comments to reference well-being.
  4. Expanding educational outreach and programming on well-being issues. We need to educate lawyers, judges, and law students on well-being issues. This includes instruction in recognizing mental health and substance use disorders as well as navigating the practice of law in a healthy manner. To implement this recommendation effectively, more resources need to be devoted to promoting well-being.
  5. Changing the tone of the profession one small step at a time. This report contains a number of small-scale recommendations, such as allowing lawyers to earn continuing legal education (CLE) credit for well-being workshops or de-emphasizing alcohol at bar association social events. These small steps can start the process necessary to place health, resilience, self-care, and helping others at the forefront of what it means to be a lawyer. Collectively, small steps can lead to transformative cultural change in a profession that has always been, and will remain, demanding.

Historically, law firms, law schools, bar associations, courts, and malpractice insurers have taken a largely hands-off approach to these issues. They have dealt with them only when forced to because of impairment that can no longer be ignored. The dedication and hard work of lawyer assistance programs aside, we have not done enough to help, encourage, or require lawyers to be, get, or stay well. However, the goal of achieving increased lawyer well-being is within our collective reach. The time to redouble our efforts is now.